Crone Geophysics & Exploration Ltd. designs and manufactures geophysical equipment, including the Pulse EM (or PEM) system – the leading time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for surface and borehole mineral exploration. Crone also provides contract surveys and consulting (see Geophysical Surveys section). Since 1962, Crone has pioneered instrument design and method development. Crone developed the first commercial TDEM system in the 1970s and continued to lead the industry with deep borehole logging and fully digital receivers. In 1991, Crone was the first to provide three-component TDEM measurements down boreholes. During the 1990s, a step-response data transformation was introduced, using unique features of Crone’s PEM system. Soon after, SQUID and fluxgate magnetometers were first used with Pulse EM and are now used routinely for deep surface and borehole exploration and in sensor arrays with full-waveform recording. Flexibility and state-of-the-art technology make Pulse EM the ultimate TDEM system.